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Brewing was a winter occupation, and ice was used to keep beer cool during the summer months.

Such beer came to be called is now used for top-fermented British types of beer.

The fermentation process is allowed to proceed from the microflora present in the raw materials (a “spontaneous” fermentation). Filtered gueuze, the most popular product, is a bottled blend of lambic and gueuze.

Different bacteria (especially lactic acid bacteria) and yeasts ferment the wort, which is high in lactic acid content. A cask product made in a similar manner is thought to have been consumed by miners in the United States during the California Gold Rush.

In fact, many of the English terms used in brewing (malt, mash, wort, ale) are Anglo-Saxon in origin.

During the Middle Ages the monastic orders preserved brewing as a craft.

Beer, alcoholic beverage produced by extracting raw materials with water, boiling (usually with hops), and fermenting.

In some countries, beer is defined by law—as in Germany, where the standard ingredients, besides water, are malt (kiln-dried germinated barley), hops, and yeast.

Malting begins by immersing barley, harvested at less than 12 percent moisture, in water at 12 to 15 °C (55 to 60 °F) for 40 to 50 hours.

In low-alcohol beers (0.5 to 2.0 percent alcohol) and “alcohol-free” beers (less than 0.1 percent alcohol), alcohol is removed after fermentation by low-temperature vacuum evaporation or by membrane filtration.

Other low-alcohol products may be produced from worts of low fermentability, using yeasts that cannot ferment maltose, or by mixing yeast separated from a normal fermentation with weak wort at a low temperature for a short time.

show that barley or partly germinated barley was crushed, mixed with water, and dried into cakes.

When broken up and mixed with water, the cakes gave an extract that was fermented by microorganisms accumulated on the surfaces of fermenting vessels.) reported that Saxons, Celts, and Nordic and Germanic tribes drank ale.

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